2019.3.5 L261 Are All Our Organs Vital?

着力提醒:这两日的一项商讨只怕太早地得出结论以为古人类屠夫在埃塞俄比亚Dikika出土的340万年前的动物骨头上扩充了切割。

Medicine has not always shown a lot of respect for the human body. Just
think about the ghoulish disregard early surgeons had for our corporeal
integrity. They poked holes in the skull and copiously drained blood
with leeches or lancets—a practice that remained a medical mainstay
through the late 19th century. Even today many of the most popular
surgeries involve the wholesale removal of body parts—the appendix,
gallbladder, tonsils, uterus (usually after the childbearing years)—with
an assurance that patients will do just fine without them. There are
many valid reasons for these “ectomies,” but what has become
increasingly less defensible is the idea that losing these organs is of
little or no consequence.

A team of researchers in China recently found a new species of dinosaur,
and it might be the oldest link between dinosaurs and modern birds. The
paleontologists discovered the 125-million-year-old fossil in Lionaning,
China. The ancient animal was three-feet long, covered in feathers, and
sported a mouthful of teeth.
在华夏,一组探究员这段日子意识新品类的恐龙,况且牠恐怕是当代鸟类与恐龙最古老的链接,古生物学家在神州湖南开采1亿2500万年前的化石。那几个唐朝生物长约三英尺,有羽毛覆盖,何况装有一嘴牙。

眼前的一项切磋或者太早地得出结论以为辽朝生人屠夫在埃塞俄比亚Dikika出土的340万年前的动物骨头上进展了切割。

Take the appendix. Or rather leave it be, if possible. Many of us
learned in school that this tiny, fingerlike projection off the colon is
a useless, vestigial remnant of our evolution, much like the puny leg
bones found in some snakes. But that idea has been debunked, says
evolutionary biologist Heather Smith, director of Anatomical
Laboratories at Midwestern University in Arizona. A 2017 study led by
Smith reviewed data on 533 species of mammals and found that the
appendix appears across multiple, unrelated species. “This suggests
there’s some good reason to have it,” she says.

The new species has been named Jianianhualong tengi. Scientists
announced its discovery in a study published on May 2 in Nature
Communications.
以此新品类被取名叫Jianianhualong
tengi。地法学家在一篇于八月2号发表于《Nature
Communications》(国际排行第3的混合型期刊)的钻研揭破其发掘。

由Dikika研讨项目告诉的后期开采提示南方古猿阿法种(Australopithecus
afarensis)——因为“露茜”的骨骼而变得着名的最初人类祖先——在石器被感觉现身从前的邻近100万年屠宰了动物的肉。不过,
曼努埃尔Dominguez-罗德里戈及其同事发掘所谓的工具印迹很或者是动物踏过骨头变成的擦痕,这几个骨头在某有的时候间被埋在了浅的沙质土壤中。这组物经济学家相比较了Dikika商讨项指标意识和原先检查了当然进程——如踩踏,那日常在化石表面留下印迹,大概被误以为是工具的印痕——的商量。

The reason appears to be immunological and gastrointestinal. In all
species that have an appendix, Smith notes, it either contains or is
closely associated with lymphoid tissue, which plays a role in
supporting the immune system. In humans, the appendix also harbors a
layer of helpful gut bacteria—a fact discovered by scientists at Duke
University. In a 2007 paper, they proposed that it serves as a “safe
house” to preserve these microbes, so that when the gut microbiome is
hit hard by illness, we can replenish it with good guys holed up in the
appendix. Some evidence for this idea surfaced in 2011, when a study
showed that people without an appendix are two and half times more
likely to suffer a recurrence of infection with Clostridium difficile, a
dangerous strain of gut bacteria that thrives in the absence of
friendlier types.

Jianianhualong tengi is a type of troodontid, which is a family of
bird-like dinosaurs related to the modern-day birds. Researchers are
unsure if Jianianhualong tengi could fly. But the well-preserved
fossilized remains indicate that it had feathers that were not
symmetrical, or longer on one side than the other. This is a key element
in the evolution of animal flight.
Jianianhualong
tengi是一种伤齿龙科,该科下都以与今世鸟类类似的恐龙。研讨人士不鲜明Jianianhualong
tengi是或不是足以飞行。可是保存完好的化石古迹提出它富有不对称的、或说在这之中贰只比较长的羽绒。那是动物演变出飞行的显要。

那组作者说,在Dikika骨头上的大部所谓的工具痕迹能够被踩踏和地质磨损加以表明,而且并不可能产生修订公众感觉的人类行为提升时间线的依赖。

The appendix may have more far-flung roles in the body—including some
that can go awry. A study published last October found that misfolded
alpha-synuclein—an abnormal protein found in the brain of Parkinson’s
disease patients—can accumulate in the appendix. Intriguingly, the study
found that people who had the organ removed as young adults appear to
have some modest protection against Parkinson’s.

“Asymmetrical feathers have been associated with flight capability, but
are also found in species that do not fly, and their appearance was a
major event in feather evolution,” the authors write in the study.
「不对称羽毛跟飞行手艺是有涉嫌的,可是一些不可能飞的品类也不无不对称羽毛,而他们的外观是羽毛演变上的首要事件。」该探究的撰稿人写道。

斯拉维尼亚语章摘要要:

New research has also shed light on the value of our tonsils and
adenoids. In a study published last July, an international team assessed
the long-term impact of removing these structures, or leaving them, in
1.2 million Danish children. Over a follow-up period of 10 to 30 years,
the 5 percent or so who had one or both sets of organs extracted before
age nine were found to have a twofold to threefold higher rate of upper
respiratory diseases and higher rates of allergies and asthma. Notably
they suffered more frequently from ear infections and, in the case of
adenotonsillectomies, sinus infections—conditions thought to be helped
by surgery.

Paleontologists first discovered that dinosaurs sported feathers with
the 1861 discovery of the Archaeopteryx, a different type of bird-like
dinosaur.
古生物学家在1861年意识Archaeopteryx,其为另一种似鸟恐龙,时第叁遍开采恐龙具备羽毛

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